Sunday, 18 April 2010

volcanic ash ~~

assalamualaikum wbt


dengan nama ALLAH yang Maha Pemurah
Maha Penyayang

tiada Tuhan melainkan ALLAH
Rasulullah SAW itu pesuruh ALLAH

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Bismillahirrahmanir rahim,

" Tuhan (yg memelihara) langit dan bumi dan apa yang ada di antara keduanya; jika kamu org2 yang meyakini"

"Tidak ada Tuhan selain Dia, Dia yang menghidupkan dan mematikan. (Dialah) Tuhanmu dan Tuhan nenek moyangmu dahulu."

"Tetapi mereka dalam keraguan, mereka bermain-main. "
" Maka tunggulah pada hari ketika langit membawa kabus yang tampak jelas,"

"Yang menyeliputi manusia. Inilah azab yang pedih"

" (Mereka berdoa), 'Ya Tuhan kami, lenyapkanlah azab itu dari kami. Sungguh, kami akan beriman.'"

" Bagaimana mereka dapat menerima peringatan padahal (sebelumnya pun) seorang Rasul telah datang meberi penjelasan kepada mereka,"

" kemudian mereka berpaling darinya dan berkata, 'Dia itu orang yang menerima ajaran (dari orang lain) dan orang gila' "

" Sungguh (kalau) Kami melenyapkan azab itu sedikit sahaja, tentu kamu akan kembali (ingkar)"

" Ingatlah pada hari (ketika) Kami menghentam mereka dgn keras. Kami pasti memberi balasan. "

Surah ad-dukhan ayat 7-16

-credit to seorang ukhti 4 da forward email-

pic from TIMES online

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latest news; updated by Apr 18 2010

All flights to and from Britain have been cancelled until at least 7pm tonight today but this deadline may be pushed back again. BA and Ryanair said their earliest flights would be tomorrow, although test flights by the Dutch and Swiss appeared to be successful.

Early this morning, air traffic control company Nats said the ash cloud was still covering Britain and the ban on flights would have to continue.

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Early this morning, air traffic control company Nats said the ash cloud was still covering Britain and the ban on flights would have to continue.

Graeme Leitch of the Met Office said a change in the wind direction might mean flight restrictions could be lifted but there was no indication that any such change was imminent.

The crisis is costing cash-strapped British and Irish airlines £28m a day. Worldwide, airlines are losing £130m a day.

Five million travellers, including as many as 1m Britons, are stranded or unable to fly. Some have been told they may not get home until next month. A group of schoolgirl fencers from Durham stranded in Beijing said they had been told they might not be able to fly back until May 4.

KLM, the Dutch airline, successfully flew a test flight from Amsterdam to Düsseldorf at 9,000ft under the cloud last night while the Swiss went higher to allow plans to fly above the cloud at 36,000ft.

Some foreign airlines are pushing up the fares of their few remaining seats on flights. Passengers have been forced to sign forms exempting airlines from any compensation claims if they are then grounded in connecting airports.

Meanwhile, rail and ferry companies have been reaping the benefit. More than 60,000 passengers travelled through Dover yesterday in traffic more akin to the summer school holidays, while Eurotunnel laid on extra trains.

Across Britain the cloud of ash is causing chaos.
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The unprecedented no-fly zone currently in force across much of Europe has already caused the greatest chaos to air travel since the Second World War.

Thousands of flights have been cancelled or postponed with millions of travel plans affected. It has been estimated that shutting down the UK’s airspace alone over the weekend could cost airlines over 100 million pounds, with the share price of some leading airlines already taking a hit.

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It is exceptionally hard to gauge how long the current grounding of flights will remain in force, although Eyjafjallajökull, the Icelandic volcano which has erupted, could potentially sputter on for months or even more than a year.

Much could depend upon weather patterns, especially wind direction, over the next few days.

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is it only iceland be affected??

This map shows the projected spread of volcanic ash for the morning of April 16. (CBC)

What is volcanic ash?

Volcanic ash — composed of rock, minerals and volcanic glass — is formed during eruptions. The abrasive particles vary in size from 0.001 millmetres (comparable to baby powder) to two millmetres (coarse grit).

What threat does volcanic ash pose to airplanes?

A plane passing through a cloud of volcanic ash can suffer damage from nose to tailfin. The ash can sandblast the plane's windshield, hampering visibility. The particles can block fuel nozzles and air intakes for the instruments that detect airspeed. They can also contaminate the oil system and electronics.

Bob McDonald, host of CBC's Quirks & Quarks, notes the sharp particles in the ash are so abrasive they are capable of stripping the paint off the exterior of a plane. Also, when pulled into the plane's ventilation system, ash poses a health threat to passengers, says McDonald.

"Airplanes draw air in from the outside to keep everybody on the inside healthy and happy," said McDonald. "And so then the gases that would be in the cloud would also get inside the plane and people would start breathing it."

But the most serious threat is to the engines.

"Jet engines are like giant vacuum cleaners. If they're in a volcanic ash cloud, they're just sucking in all that ash and that damages the engines," said Tom Murray, director of the Volcano Science Center at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which oversees five volcano observatories in the U.S.

The ash can melt or vaporize in the engine's combustion chamber, said Michael Fabian of Embry Riddle Aeronautical University's campus in Prescott, Ariz.

The molten ash can then coat the turbine blades like spray paint, disturbing the normal air flow and possibly causing the engines to shut down, said Fabian.

The ash can also interfere with the engine's thermostat, causing the computer system to think the engine is running cooler than it is. The computer would then automatially inject more fuel into the engine, causing it to overheat and shut down.

Volcanic ash can also hamper visibility, obscuring sunlight during the day. According to the USGS, the sky can turn hazy and sometimes fade to a pale yellow or intense black.

Ash is especially dangerous because the particles can't be seen on weather radar and at night, they're invisible to pilots.